## Guide to the McKinsey PST 2020 Update

*(Hint: Bookmark This Page - It's Long)*

The McKinsey Problem Solving Test (also known as the McKinsey PST) is a math computation, data interpretation and logical thinking test used by McKinsey to determine which candidates are granted a first round case interview. In general, candidates whose resumes McKinsey deems acceptable are invited to take the test. Based on feedback from hundreds of test takers, you must pass the test in order to get the interview. **There are few to no exceptions to this rule.**

**Why the McKinsey PST Exists**

The reason McKinsey uses the test is because there are a certain set of numerical computation and logical thinking skills required to be successful in consulting. While standardized math tests like the quantitative sections of the SAT, GRE, or GMAT do test math computational skills, it is possible to get perfect scores on these math tests but fail on the job in consulting.

It's my interpretation that McKinsey developed the McKinsey Test in order to test those skills that regular math tests do not adequately evaluate. In particular, these skills involve data interpretation and critical numerical reasoning.

Now when I hear the words "data interpretation" and "critical numerical reasoning", it always reminds me of those college entrance exam tests that were challenging, seemingly arbitrary and pretty much not useful in the real world. But, it turns out these skills actually have a very practical purpose while working as a consultant.

These skills allow you to:

1) Read a graphical chart (or the data spreadsheet that was used to create the chart)

2) Grasp what the "data is conclusively telling you" and separate from what the "data is suggesting (but not definitively so)"

3) Write a 1 - 2 sentence "headline" at the top of a Powerpoint slide state a logically correct conclusion

In other words, you end up using these skills every single day as a consultant. And if you use these skills incorrectly, then either your manager or partner has to redo your work for you (which means at some point you will get fired) or the client notices the logical flaws in your work and it makes your firm, your partner and your manager look bad (and of course means that at some point you're going to get fired).

Now you would think looking at a chart and writing a powerpoint headline is not a very difficult skill. I mean anyone can look at a chart and write a headline, but you would be surprised by how many people actually get the headline wrong. In other words, a LOT of aspiring consultants and even some first year consultants see that data and come to the WRONG conclusion.

From a McKinsey partner's point of view, it's a complete disaster if someone on your team lacks this skill... or even worse THINKS he has the skill, but actually doesn't.

It is such a big deal that McKinsey has gone to extensive effort to create this test and have thousands of candidates around the world take this problem solving test. All of this effort is taken for the sole goal of hiring new consultants who can do 1) do math accurately, 2) do it quickly, and (most importantly) interpret data CORRECTLY.

In short, being able to solve problems logically is a BIG DEAL.

**McKinsey PST Format**

The computer-based test consists of approximately 26 questions and lasts 60 minutes. No business background is needed to take the test, but being familiar with a few commonly used business terms is useful (see the McKinsey PST Frequently Used Terms section of Part II of this Guide Below). You are permitted to use pen, pencil or paper. No calculators or computing devices are permitted.

Typically a graphical chart or table of numerical data is presented along with some descriptive text about a company or industry. 4 - 5 questions follow that refer to the chart. The two most problem question types are:

**1) Math Word Problem - Given the data in Table X, calculate A, B or C.**

A, B or C might be profit margins. It might be figuring out which company's profits were larger two years ago. It might be calculating the difference in sales from today vs 2 years ago for two different companies - and figuring out which company had the bigger change.

In the US, we call these "word problems". The purpose of these problems is to give you raw data and information conveyed in a text paragraph, and see if you can figure out the math equation needed to solve the problem. Often the actual math computation isn't difficult (its just addition, subtraction, multiplication or division; often math problems are based on percentages - growth rate, cost expressed as a percentage of sales, or profits as a percentage of sales, sales of this year vs 3 years ago expressed as a percentage).

What makes the word problem difficult is a) Time, b) Time, c) Time.

Amongst those who pass the McKinsey Problem Solving Test, the consistent feedback was they finished with barely enough time. The most common reasons for making a mistake for a math word problem is misreading, misunderstanding, or misinterpreting the data presented or what the question was asking. The other big reason is computational error.

When I took my first McKinsey PST practice test, I actually missed several problems. To be fair, I had a newborn baby in the house and was sleeping 3 hours a night at the time, and I made a LOT of careless errors. My mistakes: I *thought* they were asking one thing, when they were really asking another. I rushed the computation, and made mistakes.

**2) Data Interpretation - "Given X chart, which of the following conclusions are accurate:"**

The other type of question isn't computationally intensive, but rather tests your logic and critical reasoning skills. You will be asked to refer to a chart or data table (mini spreadsheet with numbers) and asked some variation of the question: Which conclusion is correct?

Variations of this question including presenting you with potential answers that are a) definitively correct, b) could be correct but you can't be 100% sure, c) definitely wrong. The answers that are trickiest are ones that seem consistent with the data, but is NOT completely conclusive. In other words, you need to be able to look at the data and tell the difference between a factual conclusion vs. a hypothesis suggested (but NOT 100% proven) by the data

Skim the questions FIRST to get a feel for what you will be asked, THEN read the data table or chart. This allows you to get some idea of what you should be paying attention to while you look at the data or read the text.

- Read the text descriptions and the questions VERY CAREFULLY.
- Take the questions literally. (I made the mistake of assuming some of the questions were commonly used business analysis and jumped ahead to calculate what I assumed they were asking. What I should have done was look at what they were LITERALLY asking and just answer what they asked.)
- If your math computation skills are rusty, practice your math accuracy and speed. You do not have a lot of time to double check your computations on every problem. Some people don't have time to double check their computations at all. The more you're absolutely certain your math skills are accurate and quick, the more time you'll have to actually answer all the questions. (Once again, the main enemy of the test is time)
- For data interpretation / drawing a conclusion type questions, be careful of the multiple choice answer options that seems consistent with the data, but are not 100% conclusively supported by the data. The easiest way to do this is to immediately eliminate the answer options that are clearly wrong. Then BE CAREFUL in looking at the remaining options.
- For data interpretation question, one thing to ask yourself is "Is this conclusion correct under ALL scenarios?" - Just because the conclusion is true under the most common scenario doesn't mean it is true under all scenarios. For example, if you think B is the right answer because it is the conclusion you think is supported by the data, you should ask yourself "Are there any scenarios I can think of where conclusion B is not correct?"
- Remember a conclusion that is true MOST of the time is NOT the same as a conclusion that is true ALL of the time.
- Bring a watch to time yourself - do not assume every testing room has a clock.

**McKinsey Problem Solving Test - 3 Ways to Prepare**

The biggest challenge for developing your problem solving skills is there aren't many McKinsey PST practice test that are at a difficult level equal to that of the actual McKinsey Problem Solving Test. For a full list of practice tests available online, fill out the McKinsey Practice Test List - Request Form below.

There are three approaches you can take to prepare for PST:

1) Practice Computations

2) Practice Data Interpretation

3) Take McKinsey PST Practice Tests

Below are tips and resources for each of the practice methods.

**Practice Method #1: Practice Computations**

The first method is to practice the speed and accuracy of your arithmetic. The McK PST is a TIMED test. This is not the kind of math test designed to test the entire population of people with a wide range of math skills. It is intended to identify only those who are very good at math, logical thinking, etc... If you are really good at math, you will finish the test BARELY.

So even if you have a PhD in Physics or Math (I'm being serious on this), it is VERY IMPORTANT you practice your math computations. I get many, many emails from engineers who had 4.0 GPAs in school who did not pass the PST. Your math computation skills are a muscle. The more you use it, the stronger it gets. Keep in mind even if you calculate an integral effortlessly, it doesn't mean you can't make an error doing basic computations.

One resource I'd recommend to develop your computation accuracy and speed is www.CaseInterviewMath.com. This is a math practice tool that I developed for practicing: 1) arithmetic for speed and accuracy (both VERY important on the McKinsey PST) and 2) estimation math with large numbers (useful for solving some of the McKinsey PST word problems faster where precise math isn't necessary to answer the question, just an estimate will suffice.)

This tool compares your math accuracy and speed to other CaseInterview.com members and to my own test results as benchmark. This will help give you an idea of how your math skills compare with others; and whether or not you need to improve your math speed and accuracy to be competitive, or if you current skills are sufficient.

In addition to practicing math computations, you want to practice and develop your data interpretation skills.

**Practice Method #2: Practice Data Interpretation**

For data interpretation, the practice questions that most closely resemble PST questions are practice test questions from certain sections of the GRE. In particular, I would recommend practice "word problems" and "data interpretation" type GRE questions.

Keep in mind the actual McKinsey Problem Solving Test questions are harder and more sophisticated than the word problems and data interpretation questions in GRE. Sometimes the questions are combined -- word problem + data interpretation. Other times instead of presenting a straight forward problem, as you would see on the GRE, you'll see a more elaborate scenario (or multi paragraph story with one or more charts) where you have to figure out what information is irrelevant to the specific question at hand.

Remember, each chart is referenced by 4 - 5 questions. So for any ONE question, most of the information presented is NOT relevant to THAT particular question.

But before you work your way up the elaborate questions, polishing your foundational skills in word problems and data interpretation is a good idea.

*Data Interpretation & Word Problem Practice Resources:*

__Kaplan GRE Exam Math Workbook – Chapter’s on Arithmetic Review (if you're really rusty on math), Word Problem Practice and Data Interpretation Practice____Nova's GRE Math Prep Course – Sections on Percent’s, Graphs, Word Problems and If you're really rusty on math: Averages, Ratio & Proportions__- Cliff Notes Math Review for Standardized Tests - Word Problems Review
- Online Practice Resources:

Because GRE problems are much easier than the PST problems, you need to balance the nearly unlimited practice questions (that are too easy) available for the GRE vs. the much smaller pool of practice problems for the PST. In addition, there are only a few PST practice tests available online for free. The other practice tests available (including the ones I offer) do have a fee.

Additional Note: As of June 5, 2012, the GMAT is being revised to include a section on "Integrated Reasoning". From my assessment, this section of the GMAT has many similarities to the McK PST. If anyone has any experience with this version of the GMAT or as the test prep guides are updated to reflect this new section of the GMAT, please post your experiences below and I will incorporate the feedback into a revision of this guide.

**Practice Method #3: Take McKinsey PST Practice Tests**

The following are links to a few McKinsey PST Practice Tests.

*Links to Free Problem Solving Test Samples:*

- McKinsey Problem Solving Test - Sample Test Question on Data Sufficiency (from this website)
- McKinsey Problem Solving Test - Example Test Question on Data Sufficiency - Answer Guide (from this website)
- McKinsey Problem Solving Test 1 (from McKinsey Website)
- McKinsey Problem Solving Test 2 (from McKinsey Website)
- McKinsey Problem Solving Test 3 (from McKinsey Website)
- McKinsey Problem Solving Test Coaching Guide (from McKinsey Website)

Note: The consensus feedback from reader Field Reports is the actual McKinsey Test has a lot more reading than the samples posted above. My takeaway from this is that its important to read the questions FIRST, then read the text and charts. Keep in mind you are not reading a magazine article or a business school case. Your only mission is to answer the questions asked and to move on... QUICKLY.

With that in mind, I recommend reading with a PURPOSE in mind, as opposed to just for general knowledge. In other words, KNOW what you're looking for BEFORE you read. Then read carefully while hunting for the data you KNOW you will need to answer the questions.

Definitive Guide to the McKinsey Problem Solving Test |

I have got PST online test tomorrow. It isn’t like the usual 1hr 26 questions test, but 45 mins each for Verbal and Numeric Reasoning. Not sure how it works. Can anyone suggest me tips or useful information to be aware of, please?

Thank you :)

Hi, does anyone know if the updated 2019 PST is paper based or computer based format?

Has anyone else taken the test recently?? Thanks and this forum is super good!

I have a good news for you. Today I went to PST test in one of the Mckinsey offices in the Eastern Europe and the real exam was a lot easier. We were given 80 min to complete the test. The staff was extremely kind and nice. They even provided extra papers for doing the calculation part although math was not a big part of the test. Reading questions were more than 38% I would say. Although it was easier, still under the time pressure, it challenges you a bit. I hope I will make it to the next stage tho. Even if not, it was a great experience to feel the environment! Read the tips before going to the exam and definitely familiarize yourself with the mckinsey test question types. it will make your life easier. Best of luck!

Did McKinsey changed their PST question database?

I took the PST in paper form 6 years ago, passed, and successfully joined the Firm.

In my opinion, you can only practice this test to a limited extent. Of course, do the practice tests, and follow standard best practices for test-taking (know the location of the testing site, arrive well in advance, pace yourself, bring a watch, get enough sleep the day before the test, read questions quickly before starting to answer).

It is hard to prepare specifically for this test, unless you train the underlying skill (eg fast, accurate mental math; abstraction; synthesis) which takes significant time and effort and is too late by the time you have the test scheduled.

I just passed the PST in China. The process was really quick and I received the call 30 minutes after the test. The PST that I encountered had insulin medicine, development of EV and the last one …(I forgot…) I found the real PST too easy to a point that I was even doubting whether my logic to solve the problem was correct … (A lot of times you shall expect the correct answers are not too straightforward. However, today’s PST didn’t have more than 2 twists almost for all questions….) I felt that I was a little bit over-prepared for it. The first time that I did MCK practice test (designed from other training institution), I only got 40% right which was really low if not desperate. However, with the right methodology to train, it’s very likely that you can pass it. Below is the material that I used to practice and some personal comments on them: (the sequence that I put them down here is the sequence that I suggest using the material)

1. Victor Cheng’s video regarding how to do PST. I personally think it’s best to watch this video before you do the practice test from other institution. This video will provide you guideline and principles about the ways to solve the problems. It really shed light on the process to crack PST. I wish that I could watch this video earlier in my reparation stage (which could highly likely save me tremendous time)

2. sample tests (including Kosher Frank you can say 4 I guess). I think you should do sample test first (do all of them) after the video. (1) it will give you a sense what will be tested

(2) if you are good at summary you will detect actually there were patterns in the way MCK designed the answers (e.g. coverage of factors trumps the extreme accuracy on options… sorry I may sound confusing here … those are some “terminology” that I developed to interpret the answers structure…)

The understanding of the real MCK PST that you gain by doing the sample test will form the base for you to judge whether the practice tests formulated by other institute simulate the real test well ( don’t stress yourself because there are some questions in those preparation material which are extremely challenging to finish within 2 mins, maybe you can treat them as brain teaser and I personally think studying them is a fun thing to do and can broaden my thinking :) )

3. My consulting coach’s practice test (they have 3). I personally think this one is closest to real test in both the logic the solution explains and the complexity level. I saved 1 to do the mock before the test day. This package was well designed that it shared some short cut in terms of calculation and graph reading which other material didn’t share.

4.Victor Cheng’s PST practice tests. Those tests I feel are more difficult than the really test no matter in calculation or the logic test. So I would suggest do the MCK sample test first –> MCP ( save 1 for the final practice cuz you need to feel the time tempo to do the test with 3 cases ) –> do VC’s PST practice tests. You should be able to form a sense what kind of logic MCK will test after you finish

However, the extended packages did help me feel more comfortable with various of charts and if you can do them well, the real test will be a “overkill”

5. For the math part: you can use the Victor’s math tool however I found the % part too easy for PST, so I designed my own version of calculation practice in Excel using rand() to generate random number. Every time I practice I time myself and summarize the error that I made to identify the root cause.

Tips to do the practice test: deep understanding matters most. For the questions that I did wrong, I first tried to understand what the right way was to solve it; next why I didn’t come up with the right method. The goal when you reflect on those questions are to find practical tactics that you need to use during the real test. It might be some logic that you didn’t know before; might be some habits you need to adopt like writing numbers more organized during calculation. Identifying the root cause is not the purpose; the purpose is to (1) make up some business logic that you didn’t know deep enough before (2) form a standard habits/process of solving PST problems.

At first, I worried about the time control very much; latter I figured out the key is to boost the right-first-time answer ratio. First, seek to understand. Then speed. I practiced the test one case by one case and to start out I didn’t time myself till I felt more comfortable with what were tested. At the end of the day, you will find no matter what you will fill 26 question’s answers in the answer sheet (worst scenario is you will guess a lot … ); however the thing that will determine whether you pass or not is the accuracy. I did about 3 cases w/o timing and then begin strict timing ( I bought an digital stop watch and used it during the test as well). Timing is to help you to know when to giving up and later the reflection can teach you how to do it right.

During the preparation, I sometimes felt I was in the darkness. These comments left here gave me lots of insights and momentum to move on. I want to thank all the people who wrote here sincerely! If you practice in the right way, you don’t need luck to pass the PST. But still, good luck!

Toppi J.

Thanks a lot for your sincere comments Toppi. J. I hope it is helpful for us juniors.

Please, having my PST in three days, any tips